Gloriana: or, the revolution of 1900 by Lady Florence Dixie

Gloriana: or, the revolution by Lady Florence Dixie

“Gloriana, or, The Revolution of 1900” is a science fiction novel written by Lady Florence Dixie, a British writer, and feminist. The book was published in 1890 and is notable for its forward-thinking ideas and vision of a utopian future. Lady Florence Dixie, born as Florence Douglas, was a prolific writer and social reformer, known for her advocacy of women’s rights and her interest in various progressive causes.




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Book Overview: “Gloriana, or, The Revolution of 1900” is set in the future, specifically in the year 1900 (at the time of its writing, this was a future date), and envisions a world that has undergone a significant social and political revolution. The novel is part of a genre known as “future war” literature, which was quite popular in the late 19th century.

The plot revolves around the character of Gloriana, the Empress of New Britain, a futuristic and highly advanced nation. New Britain is depicted as a society where women hold the highest positions of power and authority. Lady Florence Dixie uses this setting to explore themes of gender equality, feminism, and the empowerment of women, all of which were revolutionary ideas in the late 19th century.

The story begins with the Empress Gloriana witnessing the consequences of a devastating war in Europe, which she attributes to the oppressive rule of men. In response to this, she becomes determined to establish a new world order where women rule and men are subservient.

Key elements of the novel include:

  1. Matriarchal Society: In the world created by Dixie, women are in charge of all aspects of governance and hold leadership positions, while men are consigned to secondary roles. This gender role reversal is a central feature of the book and is used to explore the potential benefits of a matriarchal society.
  2. Futuristic Technology: The novel also presents a vision of advanced technology, including air travel and telecommunication devices, which were groundbreaking concepts in the late 19th century.
  3. Social and Political Themes: “Gloriana” delves into themes of feminism, gender roles, and political reform, with Lady Florence Dixie advocating for a more equitable and just society.
  4. War and Peace: The novel reflects concerns about the arms race and the potential for future conflicts, a prevalent issue in Europe at the time.


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Historical Significance: The book “Gloriana, or, The Revolution of 1900” is significant for several reasons:

  1. Feminist Vision: Lady Florence Dixie’s work was a pioneering piece of feminist literature, advocating for women’s rights and equality. At the time of its publication, it was a bold and imaginative exploration of a world where gender roles were entirely reversed.
  2. Social Commentary: The novel offers a commentary on the social and political issues of its time, including concerns about militarism and war.
  3. Futuristic Vision: Dixie’s depiction of advanced technology and air travel reflects the fascination of the late 19th century with the possibilities of scientific and technological progress.
  4. Challenging Gender Norms: The book challenges traditional gender norms and anticipates the changing role of women in society in the 20th century.


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While “Gloriana, or, The Revolution of 1900” may not be as well-known today as some other science fiction classics, it remains an important work in the history of feminist literature and early science fiction. It offers a unique perspective on the social and political issues of its time and serves as a testament to the progressive ideas of Lady Florence Dixie.


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